Home' Defence Magazine : Issue 4 2009 Contents 21
efence is a large and
with 14 groups and
services that all conduct
sometimes the lines
between the various groups and
services can become blurred.
Defence Support Group (Defence Support)
supports the Defence organisation by delivering
products and services to meet the outcomes
defined by our customers, with clear lines of
responsibility and accountability to ensure we
can get the job done. Defence Support provides
essential services and support to more than 90,000
ADF personnel, APS employees and contracted
service providers where they work, train and live.
What is the Base accountabilities
The Base Accountabilities Model (BAM)
provides a clear separation of responsibility for base
management and support services from responsibility
for capability. It allows the Services and other Groups
to focus on their core capability outcomes and
other deliverables whilst ensuring Defence Support
provides high quality support services.
The model aims to ensure better engagement
between all the Groups and Services at both
a base and a national level. Developing and
implementing the model is providing a great
opportunity for Defence Support to work closely
with customers and develop solutions to better use
Defence resources to provide improved support for
The BAM operates under a hierarchy of
agreements. At the highest level, the Memorandum
of Arrangements sets out the principles under which
Defence Support, the Services and Groups will work
The Customer Supplier Agreements (CSA)
and base level Base Support Agreements
(BSA) will formally set out the support services
delivered by Defence Support to each of its
Service and Group customers.
Under this model, each location will have
its own local management forum – a Base
Management Forum (BMF) – to deal with base-
wide support management and services. This is
to be a collaborative working arrangement with
representation from Defence Support and customer
Groups/Services at each forum.
What does Bam mean for you?
While it will be business as usual as far as
the products and services Defence Support delivers
are concerned, the BAM aims to improve the
efficiency and effectiveness of base management
and support delivery. There will be a shift to more
consistent and standardised base support - with
Defence Support providing greater coordination
support for day–to-day requirements of a base.
“The model, agreed by the CDF and the
Secretary and endorsed by the Chiefs of Service
Committee, expects the commitment of all
military and civilian staff to make the Base
Accountabilities Model a success by engendering
trust with each other, being outcome-focused
and flexible,” Martin Bowles, Deputy Secretary
Defence Support said.
“The new model includes performance
reporting and management mechanisms to
allow Defence Support, in consultation with its
customers, to continue to refine and develop its
products and services to provide the best possible
support to meet customer requirements,” Martin
“This model gives customers greater visibility
of how Defence Support does business, and
provides an opportunity for Defence Support to
work with customers in the development of their
requirements to ensure a better collaborative
outcome for all.”
The Defence Support Base Support Manager
(BSM) on each base will remain accountable for the
delivery of base support management and services
including the integrated delivery of agreed support
services. Similarly, the Heads of Residential Units
(HRU) will remain responsible for the delivery of their
capability, operational support, force generation and
other Group/Service-specific products or services.
A senior military officer from the primary
service on the base will be appointed as a Senior
ADF Officer (SADFO). The SADFO appointment is
additional to this senior officer’s normal role and
provides broad leadership to all military personnel
on the base and works closely with the BSM to
facilitate the smooth running of the base.
When is Bam coming to you?
Since July 2008, BAM has been trialled at
three Defence trial sites - HMAS Stirling, Western
Australia; Lavarack Barracks, north Queensland;
and RAAF Amberley, south Queensland. The model
is now being rolled out across all Defence bases
and establishments. The roll-out will be completed
by end of 2009.
how can you find out more?
Presentations on the model are currently
being held at major bases across Australia. Details
are in Defgram 130/2009 - Base Accountabilities
Model - information website and notice of Base
presentations. Further information is also available
on the BAM website http://intranet.defence.gov.
Base Accountabilities Model
a new way of doing business
Although this is the first WW1 dig for Oxford
Archaeology, they will be drawing on extensive
experience gained from working on other war-time
sites such as the WW2 labour camp, La Glacerie, in
France, which was set up soon after D-Day in 1944.
“The camp housed German Army and Navy
POWs, employed first in the rebuilding of the
bombed harbour facilities and town of Cherbourg,
and later as dockworkers handling Allied war
material,” Dr Loe said.
“This was an experimental project in that
we were looking at ways to combine traditional
archaeological investigation with official history
and personal testimony, on sites of relatively
The archaeological group has also excavated
numerous graves, prehistoric to modern. Of these,
the most similar to Fromelles was the Roman mass
grave excavated at London Road, Gloucester—a
site containing about 91 individuals.
“Although many centuries apart, this Roman
mass grave site was very similar to the grave at
Fromelles,” Dr Loe said
“The soil was like sticky clay, bodies were
entangled with each other and there were
numerous artefacts that had to be carefully
associated with individuals.
“Individuals on our dig team have also worked
on mass graves on atrocity crime investigations in
Bosnia, Kosovo, Iraq and Guatemala.”
A group of 30 specialists, among them forensic
archaeologists, anthropologists and traditional
archaeologists, will continue the painstaking
recovery process using small, delicate tools such as
hand trowels and soft brushes to carefully excavate
each individual skeleton until it is fully exposed.
“The excavation of mass graves follows
basic principles used in traditional archaeology,”
Dr Loe said.
“These include accurate recording in three
dimensions, and recognising and recording
stratigraphic relationships to ensure that the
context of the human remains is fully understood.
“It will take time to unravel what we find and
match up items with individuals and body parts.”
Dr Loe added that scientific approaches used
during the dig will ensure that they can confidently
match buried materials, such as badges and dog
tags, with an individual.
“I am sure there will be moments when
members of the team will find this experience
an emotional one, especially as discoveries of
these particular personal items are made,” Dr Loe
said. “But this is vitally important because the
identification of the soldiers buried here is the
paramount aim of this project.”
Recording forms will then be completed,
photographs taken and the precise position of the
bones accurately recorded in three dimensions
using digitally survey.
“The same processes will apply to any
artefacts found with them,” Dr Loe said. “The
survey data will help us interpret the location and
orientation of skeletons, bones and artefacts,
which will vary, and thereby allow us to confidently
know which bones and artefacts belong with which
“Skeletons and artefacts will be assigned a
unique number which will stay with them until they
are re-buried. That way, we can confidently retain the
integrity and continuity of the evidence, from group
burial to individual grave in the CWGC cemetery.”
Following the excavation, the skeletons and
artefacts will be carefully transported to the forensic
laboratory which is adjacent to the site. Here these
items will undergo the critical stage of cleaning,
conservation and analysis to determine their identity.
“Examinations will be supported by radiology
and samples will be taken from the human remains
for DNA testing,” Dr Loe said.
“The project will be successful if we can
give these men a military burial knowing that we
have done all we can to identify them and having
treated them with full reverence and respect.”
In what will be the first CWGC cemetery in
50 years, the remains will then be reinterred in
individual graves to be known as the Fromelles
(Pheasant Wood) Military Cemetery. Fittingly, a
military funeral will be held at the site in July
2010, on the anniversary of the Battle of Fromelles.
For the latest updates and other information
on the Fromelles project, please visit www.
army has established a register for those
who believe that a relative of theirs may be
buried at Fromelles. members of the public
are encouraged to enter their details online
or via the public inquiry line 1800 019 090.
The register will form a base from which
links to current living relatives may be made
if identification of remains is possible.
aBoVe: major general
mike o'Brien and Vice
chief of the Defence Force
lieutenant general David
hurley at the site of the
WW1 mass grave in the
French town of Fromelles
prior to the commencement
of unearthing the bodies.
Photo: Alastair Miller
aBoVe: The proposed plan for the
new commonwealth War graves
commission cemetery to be built at
Fromelles. Photo: Oxford Archaeology
rIghT: rising sun collar badge
uncovered in Fromelles in may 2008.
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